Penard Labs

Penard Labs
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Amoebozoa Lühe 1913, emend. Cavalier-Smith 1998
Cells naked or testate, uni-, bi- and multinucleate, cysts common, sexual or asexual, pseudopodia of the lobopodia type.


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Nucletmycea Brown et al. 2009
This is a group that includes Fungi, Nuclearia and Fonticula. Some nucleariid amoebae often show axopodia-like pseudopodia. Nucleariids have no axonemes and no kinetocysts.


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Stramenopiles Patterson 1989, emend. Adl et al. 2005
Motile cells typically biciliate, typically with heterokont ciliation – anterior cilium with tripartite mastigonemes in two opposite rows and a posterior usually smooth cilium.


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Centrohelea Kühn 1926, stat. n. Cavalier-Smith 1993
Non-flagellate heliozoa with axopodial axonemes; nucleus eccentric; centrosome central; two types of siliceous scales present ancestrally (flat inner tangential plate scales and elongated, usually pointed, outer radial spine scales), but outer scales or both scale layers secondarily lost in several derived lineages.


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Cercozoa Cavalier-Smith 1998, emend. Adl et al. 2005
This is a group of flagellates and amoebae defined by molecular phylogenies. The amoeboid genera have either filose pseudopodia (filopodia) or networks of anastomosing reticulopodia. Very often with cysts.


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Foraminifera d’Orbigny 1826
Filopodia with granular cytoplasm, forming branching and anastomosing network (reticulopodia); bidirectional rapid (10 mm/s) transport of intracellular granules. With some exceptions this is a large taxon of marine species.
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Twilight Zone
Unidentified amoebae and amoebae where the phylogenetic placement is unknown.